Digiday+ Research: A guide to the top 10 ID alternatives for publishers

Identification applied sciences are the spine of programmatic promoting, which has been depending on monitoring consumer information and third-party cookies for many years. In actual fact, most non-premium publishers depend upon advert concentrating on by means of third-party cookies for over 80% of their ad revenue.

However with Google’s plans to part third-party cookies out of Chrome in 2023, and Safari and Firefox already blocking them, as much as $10 billion of US publisher revenue may very well be at stake. With pushback from regulators on third-party cookies and different monitoring know-how, a complete ID tech and standardization {industry} has emerged. 

Privateness-friendly identifiers enable publishers to depend on user-volunteered first-party information – reminiscent of e-mail addresses, names, clicks and extra – in bigger, extra open markets with out compromising consumer privateness. These writer first-party IDs might be matched with advertiser-created first-party IDs to search out advert placement matches inside DSPs or different shared instruments. Most IDs are constructed from each deterministic id information (simple to personally establish: identify, e-mail tackle) and probabilistic id information (connecting particular person information factors from disparate sources reminiscent of machine and browser utilization, to probabilistically establish a consumer).

As extra firms enter the advanced id house and experiment with ID compliance, development and matching, Digiday created this information of the ten main various IDs, chosen on the idea of adoption and innovation. Digiday researchers spoke with executives and product leaders at every of the ID firms and carried out extra unbiased analysis. Within the following encyclopedic useful resource, we dive deep into all 10 to map out precisely how they work and who ought to use them. 

10 various ID choices

Here’s a complete overview of what makes every of the IDs distinctive and for whom they’re finest suited.

How the info stacks up

Digiday collected info from every of the ID firms about what information they use to construct the backbones of their IDs. Electronic mail addresses are the most typical information sort used to assemble IDs. Whereas most IDs don’t use third-party cookies, they’re nonetheless the most typical approach to match throughout the ecosystem for now.

Privateness mechanisms employed for ID creation

ID firms need to be compliant with EU privateness rules and a few US state privateness rules like CCPA. Three key compliancy traits Digiday recognized are consent, transparency and consumer information safety mechanisms. Most firms are encrypting consumer information. Others are taking it a step additional by providing continually altering ID tokens. The tokens each shield information and assist to keep away from a lag between when a consumer consents to obtain personalised advertising and marketing and after they may decide out on one other writer area or machine. 

Deep dives into the IDs

If the advert tech ecosystem was not advanced sufficient, with privateness and various IDs added to the combo, publishers are racking their brains to grasp what ID resolution is correct for them. To simplify the difficulty, Digiday breaks down the important thing traits of every of the main IDs and maps out their best use circumstances. 



The login-based ID resolution

Primarily based on an interview with Iván Markman, Yahoo’s chief enterprise officer, and Gio Gardelli, who leads product for Yahoo’s advert concentrating on, id and belief

What’s ConnectID?

ConnectID is a first-party, consent-driven id resolution owned by Yahoo that makes use of shopper login info, reminiscent of e-mail addresses, to establish customers throughout writer and advertiser web sites. ConnectID is for publishers and advertisers who’ve direct relationships with customers. (Yahoo additionally has a contextual concentrating on resolution, Subsequent-Gen Options, for many who don’t.) 

It makes use of Yahoo’s massive consent-based id graph of deterministic information from opted-in customers to reconcile customers and construct IDs. ConnectID solely works with Yahoo’s DSP, which gives viewers activation for hundreds of thousands and media measurement starting from conventional show to CTV, programmatic audio and digital out-of-home.

Who ought to use it?

Publishers and advertisers with extra assets and direct consumer relationships who wish to outsource ID matching.

What does it do?

ConnectID is used for omni-channel planning, activation and measurement and attribution by means of to the provision facet the place Yahoo integrates with publishers who’ve consent from their clients. It additionally connects advertisers who’ve consent-based login info from clients by way of their CRM information, loyalty packages and extra. Advertisers and publishers can join with Yahoo’s id graph, so the identities run within Yahoo’s unified stack.

Why is it distinctive?

ConnectID faucets into Yahoo’s huge id graph of consumer information. As a result of Yahoo itself is a big writer, it has wealthy consent-based login, demographic and contextual info on hundreds of thousands of distinctive customers. It reaches 148 million deterministic logged in customers within the US alone.

How does it work? 

  • When a consumer logs onto or one other writer’s or advertiser’s portal, they supply their e-mail tackle to the positioning and consent to the positioning’s use of their info.
  • The consumer’s e-mail tackle is shipped to Yahoo utilizing APIs. It’s hashed and a further layer of encryption is added earlier than it’s despatched again to the writer as a ConnectID to share for real-time bidding. It’s a one-way course of.
  • The ConnectID is linked to Yahoo’s id graph and shared in Yahoo’s DSP. Within the DSP, the writer and advertiser IDs are matched, offering safe advert placement.
  • The DSP permits for activation and measurement throughout a number of media channels.

Who’re the companions?

Publishers: Over 11,000 writer domains like BuzzFeed, The Arena Group (formerly Maven), CafeMedia, Mediavine and Newsweek

Advertisers: Over 1,200 advertisers activate first-party information with the ID. Over 2,000 advertisers positioned advertisements the place Yahoo ConnectID was enabled as of December 2021.

Technical: Yahoo has over 20 partnerships with DMPs and CDPs to offer interoperability and assist for ConnectID, together with Epsilon, Catalina, NCSolutions, IRI, mParticle, Adobe and Merkle’s Merkury.

Adoption: Yahoo, by means of each direct shopper relationships and {industry} partnerships, reaches 148 million deterministic logged in customers within the US throughout over 240 million distinctive profiles, tied to 100 million IDs and 400 million distinctive units.

What sort of information does it use to establish customers?

Core deterministic information: Login info, primarily within the type of e-mail addresses, that are reconciled at a person consumer stage. For example, if a number of e-mail addresses with, or are utilized by the identical particular person for web site logins, they’re reconciled to kind a single ConnectID for one particular person.

Different deterministic information: N/A

Probabilistic information: N/A

Does this resolution use third-party cookie information?

No. Third-party cookie information isn’t used to construct a ConnectID. The ID itself, nonetheless, can join with different IDs that use third-party cookies.

How does this ID resolution tackle consent and consumer privateness?

  • Consent: ConnectID depends on the writer’s, advertiser’s or Yahoo’s personal login information {that a} consumer gives by alternative.
  • Transparency: ConnectID depends on the writer’s and advertiser’s notices.
  • Knowledge safety: An e-mail tackle offered by a writer or advertiser is hashed and encrypted. The identical e-mail is encrypted otherwise on varied writer websites, so it can’t be simply intercepted. Moreover, a consumer can’t be tracked throughout publishers as a result of the encryption keys are periodically refreshed each two weeks as an additional layer of safety to stop information abuse, leaking or de-anonymization makes an attempt. On the interoperability facet, the ID works barely otherwise relying on its use. For example, in concentrating on, the info flows a method from DMPs and CDPs, or in some circumstances advertisers, immediately into Yahoo’s platform. Yahoo merely permits the platforms or advertisers to ship hashed emails by means of APIs, and the hashed emails are transformed into ConnectIDs. The ConnectIDs are used for concentrating on, forecasting and planning.

About Yahoo

Yahoo is a world web companies supplier, headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. Stanford College graduate college students Jerry Yang and David Filo based Yahoo in 1994. Verizon Communications acquired Yahoo in 2017, merged it with AOL and rebranded the mixed entity as Oath. It later modified the identify to Verizon Media Group. Verizon Media launched ConnectID in December 2020. In September 2021, non-public fairness agency Apollo Administration Group acquired a 90% stake in Verizon Media and adjusted its identify again to Yahoo. Yahoo owns ConnectID.



The primary-party information decision ID resolution

Primarily based on an interview with Sara Stevens, Epsilon’s former VP of digital capabilities

What’s CORE ID?

CORE ID is a person-based id decision providing for publishers and advertisers that’s rooted in deterministic information, particularly offline identify and tackle information. Epsilon’s Writer Hyperlink, an id resolution, prompts first-party authenticated information and a consumer’s distinctive PubCommon ID which reads to the already established CORE ID. On the writer facet, that is achieved by means of an integration particular for the publishers; on the shopper web site facet, it makes use of a tagging integration.

Epsilon’s PubCommon ID, which is an open supply first-party cookie ID within the writer’s area, was adopted by Prebid in 2020 and merged with SharedID. 

What does it do?

Publishers and advertisers can join their first-party information to CORE ID’s established customers’ digital identities. Publishers and advertisers can join with the identical IDs, permitting CORE ID to offer ID decision and matching, whereas preserving PII secure.

Why is it distinctive?

An offline identify and tackle is the idea of CORE ID. And as soon as a consumer opts out on one machine, they’re opted out on all units, making consumer consent a dominant issue. 

Who ought to use it?

Publishers and advertisers with extra assets to outsource ID decision and matching.

How does it work? 

  • A tag is positioned on each the writer web site and the shopper/advertiser web site. Each entities make a name to the CORE ID service when an individual visits their web site to test whether or not the consumer has a CORE ID. 
  • If sure, the e-mail tackle is hashed and shared with the service, which connects it with offline deterministic information and provides different personally identifiable info (PII)-based parts, cellphone numbers and different e-mail addresses. It connects this information at a consumer stage and anonymizes it. This helps set up the consumer’s base id. 
  • In stage two, digital id reminiscent of machine utilization and cookie-based information is linked to the bottom id info to allow activation. 
  • Pseudonymization of consumer information and matching happens by means of Epsilon’s information processing product Agility and its DSP. If each writer and advertiser are utilizing CORE ID, matching can happen throughout the web. And advertisers may goal potential clients. 

Who’re the companions? 

Publishers: Native integrations with over 8,000 publishers

Technical: LiveRamp and The Commerce Desk

DSPs: Native direct integrations with The Commerce Desk, Yahoo (beforehand Verizon), Google Show and Video 360, Fb

Adoption: In keeping with Epsilon, on common amongst those that implement PubCommon ID (which reads to CORE ID) with Writer Hyperlink see 50% improve in writer income and 60% improve in stuffed impressions

What sort of information does it use to establish customers?

Core deterministic information: Identify, e-mail tackle, postal tackle

Different deterministic information: Telephone quantity, first-party cookies

Probabilistic information: Gadget information, browser exercise, IP tackle, third-party cookies

Does this resolution use third-party cookie information?

Sure, on Chrome, however not on Safari. 

How does this ID resolution tackle consent and consumer privateness?

  • Consent: Digital opt-out alerts are a part of Epsilon’s Agility course of. In america, Agility receives opt-out flags from the shopper facet when a consumer doesn’t wish to see ads, and these flags are honored in each writer and advertiser channels. For Safari browser, Epsilon follows the IDFA, the opt-in service for Apple app-based promoting. In Europe, Epsilon provides a free consent software widget for purchasers to assist them handle cookie-related messages.
  • Transparency: Epsilon depends on transparency mechanisms, like opt-out choices, offered by publishers and advertisers.
  • Knowledge safety: Epsilon makes use of Agility to pseudonymize PII information and collapse these alerts right into a generic ID, reminiscent of a random string of numbers like 48232. This generic ID resides within the advert server and is shipped to the DSP — it has no PII hooked up to it. 

Is it interoperable? 

Sure. CORE ID might be mapped to LiveRamp’s common connector and is built-in with The Commerce Desk’s UID 2.0.

About Epsilon

Epsilon is a world information tech platform owned by Publicis Groupe. Publicis acquired Epsilon, which has greater than 8,000 staff in over 40 workplaces worldwide, in 2019. Epsilon designed CORE ID in 2007 on a privacy-by-design foundation and has been constructing its id graph of greater than 200 million individuals by means of direct writer relationships since 2012. In 2021, Epsilon united CORE ID with The Commerce Desk’s Unified ID 2.0 to create interoperability between the IDs, permitting Pubicis purchasers to activate CORE ID on The Commerce Desk’s DSP; and permitting The Commerce Desk to grow to be the unique DSP accomplice for CORE ID. 


Fabrick ID

The multi-ID resolution

Primarily based on an interview with Steve Silvers, Neustar’s svp and gm of selling options – id

What’s Fabrick ID?

Fabrick ID is a programmatic token that’s made up of a wide range of publisher-provided PII and is designed as a cookie alternative. Purchasers can use Fabrick ID to construct advertising and marketing packages, both on the family stage or the person stage. As soon as a marketing campaign is executed, Neustar performs measurement utilizing Fabrick ID and different IDs.

Who ought to use it?

Publishers who use a number of IDs and wish to join these information sources throughout one platform for transactions and measurement.

What does it do?

Neustar turns publisher-provided consumer info right into a token within the type of a Fabrick ID and sends it again to the writer. The publisher-specific token can be utilized to speak with Neustar’s connectivity platform, additionally known as “Fabrick,” and to promote its media programmatically. The platform can join some other IDs the writer is utilizing with Fabrick ID and supply measurement. Neustar doesn’t construct or enable clients to construct mapping tables.

Why is it distinctive?

Fabrick ID is one piece of a connectivity platform, which is Neustar’s essential product. Fabrick ID can be utilized with a number of different IDs to create a publisher-specific ID to run campaigns and/or measure their effectiveness. The Fabrick ID token doesn’t switch or translate into one other ID.

How does it work? 

  • The writer calls Neustar’s API, both on a web page as a tag or by way of a backend course of. The decision passes user-related info, usually in some mixture of a hashed e-mail, cellphone quantity, first-party cookie and/or an IP tackle, to the Neustar platform. 
  • Neustar turns that info right into a token, which is the Fabrick ID, and sends it again to the writer. The writer makes use of the syndicated ID to promote its media programmatically. If the writer is concentrating on households, Neustar will create one Fabrick ID for the complete family. If the writer is concentrating on people, Neustar will create a Fabrick ID for every particular person within the family..
  • Neustar sends the IDs to publishers or to advertisers to launch the campaigns. In some circumstances, Neustar builds audiences in an SSP and this advert stock is bought by way of a non-public market deal. In different circumstances, the transaction happens by means of a DSP.
  • As soon as a marketing campaign is executed, Neustar receives logs for the IDs used and it performs marketing campaign measurements utilizing the IDs.

Who’re the companions? 

Publishers: A number of 100s of publishers

Advertisers: 400+ advertisers, 70% of which symbolize the highest 100 globally

Adoption: Neustar has run practically 400 campaigns since Fabrick ID launched in July 2020. 

What sort of information does it use to establish customers?

Core deterministic information: Writer-provided hashed e-mail

Different deterministic information: Telephone quantity, first-party cookies

Probabilistic information: IP tackle

Does this resolution use third-party cookie information?

No. Neustar doesn’t use third-party cookies for the Fabrick ID token, nor does it require them for transactions. 

How does this ID resolution tackle consent and consumer privateness?

  • Consent: Customers give consent on a writer’s privateness web page.
  • Transparency: The Fabrick ID requires clear language on the privateness pages of all  publishers that use it for consumer opt-out and consent to promote consumer information
  • Knowledge safety: The Fabrick ID token is reset each seven days. The IDs are designed to run out shortly, lowering the lag time between when a consumer opts out and when the opt-out takes impact. 

Is it interoperable? 

Sure. Neustar’s connectivity platform helps a number of identifiers. Along with supporting Fabrick ID, it additionally helps Ramp ID and UID 2.0.

About Neustar

Neustar is an info companies and know-how and id decision firm that gives real-time information and analytics for the advertising and marketing, threat, communications and safety industries. It was based in 1996 as a division of Lockheed Martin. TransUnion acquired Neustar in December 2021. Neustar is headquartered in Reston, Virginia.



The device-level ID resolution

Primarily based on an interview with Mathieu Roche, ID5’s CEO 

What’s ID5 ID?

ID5 ID is an encrypted first-party information ID that offers publishers a person machine ID to share with their companions. The ID gives the infrastructure that permits ID matching for publishers. The ID is resolved cross-site and cross-device to permit for higher measurement and attribution. 

Who ought to use it?

Publishers with extra assets to outsource ID creation and privateness compliance with a view to run campaigns whereas preserving consumer information secure.

What does it do?

This ID provides publishers encryption and decryption capabilities to guard consumer information when it enters the bid stream and to stay privateness compliant. ID5 additionally gives entry to replace requests so publishers can construct viewers segments, monetize advertisements and purchase or promote campaigns. 

ID5 doesn’t present a mapping service or match with advertisements in DSPs on behalf of publishers; the latter ship ID5 IDs into SSPs themselves. It doesn’t run campaigns, construct segments or acquire or create consumer profiles. It may well deal with identification alerts based mostly on consent as a result of these alerts are thought-about private information in some jurisdictions.

Why is it distinctive?

The ID is constructed utilizing a privacy-by-design strategy, that means that privateness implications and considerations are addressed on the core of product, companies and system designs improvement. Websites and purposes that work with ID5 have an obligation to reveal that ID5 is gathering consumer information and what sort of information is being collected. The websites cross consent, opt-out and do-not-sell alerts to ID5, which solely executes its companies when it has the transparency and management required by regulation.

How does it work? 

  • A sort of API integration is enabled by way of the writer web site (ID5 has direct relationships with 100s of publishers) or by means of know-how companions that decision ID5 on behalf of the writer web site. 
  • The location authorizes ID5 to retrieve the info and to create an ID5 ID for that specific consumer. 
  • The ID is reconciled throughout websites or purposes utilizing a mixture of probabilistic and deterministic approaches to verify the ID is constant. 
  • Writer companions then can run cross-site information assortment, implement profiling and measurements, and share the ID with companions for advert concentrating on and to promote advertisements for larger costs. 

Who’re the companions? 

Publishers: Direct relationships with 400+ publishers, together with Complicated Networks and NDTV

Manufacturers and companies: Who want user-level identification, the likes of Scream Malmo

Technical accomplices: 100s of information firms, SSPs and DSPs, together with Amazon, Prebid and PubMatic

Adoption: ID5 ID is energetic on greater than 70,000 web sites and cellular purposes, principally reached by means of provide facet/writer integrations. In keeping with ID5, between 10% and 50% of bid requests globally comprise an ID5 ID, and it reaches 4 billion units per 30 days.

What sort of information does it use to establish customers?

Core deterministic information: Electronic mail addresses (to tie info throughout domains and websites)

Different deterministic information: Telephone quantity

Probabilistic information: IP tackle consumer brokers, browser exercise together with web page URLs and timestamps throughout a go to (an algorithmic/probabilistic strategy is used to guess that the identical machine is interacting repeatedly throughout websites)

Does this resolution use third-party cookie information?

No. It solely makes use of first-party information and might match with third-party IDs if consent is current.

How does this ID resolution tackle consent and consumer privateness?

  • Consent: ID makes use of consent strings. 
  • Transparency: Writer companions are required to tell customers that ID5 is gathering information.
  • Knowledge safety: ID is encrypted. Knowledge is become a random alphanumeric string of characters or hash.

Is it interoperable? 

No. Presently, it doesn’t match with different various IDs. 

About ID5

ID5 launched in 2017 as shared id infrastructure for advert tech platforms and premium publishers. It’s a privacy-compliant ID resolution based by advert tech executives Mathieu Roche, Pierre-Antoine Durgeat and Scott Menzer. In April 2022, data-certification company Neutronian named ID5 the primary Neutronian High quality Index licensed id resolution, indicating that ID5 “meets or exceeds {industry} requirements within the areas of information high quality and privateness compliance.”



The writer e-newsletter ID resolution

Primarily based on an interview with Mano Pillai, LiveIntent’s chief product officer

What’s nonID?

NonID is an email-based encrypted identifier token for publishers. NonID’s guardian firm LiveIntent locations advertisements inside writer newsletters and due to this fact has entry to massive quantities of subscriber e-mail tackle or “zero-party” information on which it builds an id graph. LiveIntent is a full-stack platform with an SSP, an trade and a DSP. Third-party DSPs additionally combine into its trade, the place nonIDs might be matched with e-newsletter advertisements and different IDs securely and at scale.

Who ought to use it?

Publishers with newsletters who wish to outsource ID creation and matching and wish to generate income by putting advertisements in newsletters.

What does it do?

NonID helps publishers unify consumer identities and bridge with different IDs. It additionally gives publishers with consumer information to assist them successfully interact with clients and place advertisements of their newsletters. Publishers can entry LiveIntent’s id graph to create non-public buyer graphs, that are utterly first-party in nature. 

Why is it distinctive?

LiveIntent primarily serves advertisements inside e-newsletter stock in order that publishers can generate income from the advertisements.

How does it work? 

  • When a consumer subscribes to a writer e-newsletter, the buyer provides consent for his or her information for use and it’s prolonged in an authenticated atmosphere to the writer’s web site. As soon as the buyer gives consent, LiveIntent can retrieve the first-party e-mail tackle information from the writer. 
  • Writer companions may put LiveIntent’s JavaScript tags on their pages. That permits LiveIntent to make deterministic connections between the e-mail channel and a writer’s stock, in a totally authenticated atmosphere.
  • LiveIntent turns an e-mail tackle right into a token/hashed e-mail, making a nonID.
  • LiveIntent has a module in Prebid by means of which it passes nonIDs into the bid stream for the purchase facet to transact on on the internet.

Who’re the companions? 

Publishers: over 700 publishers have JavaScript on their web page which permits nonID

Adoption: 200 million distinctive e-mail addresses overlaying the US addressable viewers. 8.6+ billion information are tied to LiveIntent’s identifiers, 60% of those are tied to an anonymized e-mail tackle. Within the LiveIntent Change, 100% of impressions have nonID related to them. 

What sort of information does it use to establish customers?

Core deterministic information: Electronic mail tackle (It doesn’t make the most of consumer registration information apart from e-mail addresses to construct a nonID. For instance, it doesn’t use shopper names and addresses.)

Different deterministic information: N/A

Probabilistic information: N/A

Does this resolution use third-party cookie information?

No. NonID doesn’t use third-party cookie information, however it will possibly join with different IDs which can use third-party cookie information in LiveIntent’s advert trade.

How does this ID resolution tackle consent and consumer privateness?

  • Consent: LiveIntent depends on publisher-provided consent. Publishers get consent when customers register to obtain their newsletters.
  • Transparency: LiveIntent depends on publisher-provided transparency inside the consent messages they serve to customers when customers register to obtain newsletters.
  • Knowledge safety: Electronic mail addresses offered by publishers are hashed and encrypted. 

Is it interoperable? 

Sure. NonID identifies logged in e-mail customers throughout web sites and apps by way of their hashed e-mail addresses and bridges them with different IDs, publishers and advertisers by means of LiveIntent’s API or “Authenticated Bridge” framework.  

About LiveIntent

LiveIntent is an e-mail advert monetization platform headquartered in New York. CEO Matthew Keiser and Dave Hendricks based LiveIntent in 2009. LiveIntent makes use of tags embedded in writer newsletters to serve advertisements to readers after they initially open an emailed e-newsletter. The corporate says it runs an trade of greater than 2,000 newsletters reaching greater than 200 million readers per 30 days. 


Panorama ID

The common consumer consent ID resolution

Primarily based on an interview with Pierre Diennet, Lotame’s product chief and chief evangelist

What’s Panorama ID?

Panorama ID is a data-minimized predictive identifier that requires energetic consumer consent obtained from publishers and the Prebid privateness module. It may be utilized by first-party entrepreneurs and writer purchasers to position advertisements in a privateness pleasant method. Panorama ID makes use of a number of consumer information factors and can be utilized throughout SSPs and DSPs to match with advertisements and different IDs. It doesn’t observe a consumer throughout a number of writer web sites to construct a match. Panorama ID enhances a cookie’s perform as a result of it’s privateness compliant and works cross-domain and cross-platform at a person stage. 

Who ought to use it?

Publishers who’re dedicated to acquiring consumer consent; and publishers who’ve a big consumer base prepared to offer energetic consent to be tracked and proven personalised ads.

What does it do?

Panorama ID makes use of predictive alerts to construct a single Panorama ID for a consumer provided that energetic consent has been given. It really works throughout varied writer domains, information factors associated to browser exercise, and units to construct an ID that may be matched with different IDs within the bid stream and used to position focused advertisements in real-time.

Why is it distinctive?

If a consumer gives energetic consent for his or her information for use and to obtain personalised promoting on one writer web site or one machine, however opts out on one other writer area or machine, Lotame is not going to use that consumer’s information or observe them for any motive. Lotame will decide the consumer out at a cluster stage from all units and publishers and won’t hyperlink that information with the ID. Panorama ID isn’t encrypted.

How does it work? 

Panorama ID works in 3 ways:

1) Direct Hyperlink: When a consumer visits a writer web page and gives energetic consent, the writer ID module makes an impression slot obtainable for bidding with the Panorama ID. Lotame sends the first-party marketer, viewers or writer information into the DSP to  activate and meet the bids requests on the Panorama ID.

2) ID Translation: Lotame sends consumer information by way of the Panorama ID to a different ID resolution’s translation layer. The interpretation layer renders the Panorama ID information onto its ID, the place it  makes a match.

3) SSP Route: A Panorama ID is included in a bid delivered to the SSP. The SSP stops the ID there and creates a deal ID, together with the consumer information hooked up to the Panorama ID. The SSP passes solely the deal ID by means of to the DSP.

Who’re the companions? 

Publishers: 10,000+ 

Manufacturers and companions: Dr. Martens, Omnicom Group, Advance Native, Rush Road Interactive, Digo Hispanic Media, MediaMath, PubMatic, and extra

Adoption: Has run practically 400 campaigns within the first 12 months after its launch in October 2020. Panorama ID outcomes vs cookies embody:

  • 9.43X elevate in CTR / 107% extra viewable impressions
  • 3X cheaper than cookies / 2X scaled supply
  • 8X CPM for writer, elevate in total yield / 2X beforehand unaddressable stock
  • 31% impression elevate in all browsers / 2.5X extra environment friendly supply than cookies

What sort of information does it use to establish customers?

Core deterministic information: N/A

Different deterministic information: First-party cookies

Probabilistic information: IP tackle, browser exercise, machine information, third-party cookies, massive information units of consented visitors, timestamps and, in some circumstances, consumer brokers (non-compulsory), cellular advert IDs (if obtainable in-app) and CTV machine identifiers (if obtainable)

Does this resolution use third-party cookie information?

Sure, if a third-party cookie is current on the browser when the consumer consents.

How does this ID resolution tackle consent and consumer privateness?

  • Consent: Lotame requires energetic consumer consent and reactive opt-out, and solely makes use of a shopper’s information when they comply with be proven personalised ads based mostly on browser historical past, and many others. Lotame requires energetic consent on each writer area. It doesn’t mechanically assume if a consumer provides consent on one writer area that consent can be given on one other writer area. 
  • Transparency: When a consumer goes on a writer’s web page, they’re notified of Lotame’s information utilization and monitoring in a writer consent administration system message to the consumer.
  • Knowledge safety: Panorama ID isn’t encrypted. It’s derived from a privateness API, which solely shares consumer information if consent is current.

Is it interoperable? 

Sure. Panorama ID syncs with Ramp ID at the moment.

About Lotame

Lotame Options is a knowledge administration firm based in 2006 by former promoting government Andrew Monfried. Lotame works with publishers, entrepreneurs and companies to gather buyer information for viewers segmentation and advert concentrating on. It’s headquartered in Columbia, Maryland, with world purchasers. Lotame launched Panorama ID in October 2020 and it grew to become obtainable to be used in January 2021.


Ramp ID

The interoperable ID

Primarily based on an interview with Travis Clinger, LiveRamp’s svp and head of addressability and ecosystem

What’s Ramp ID?

Ramp ID is an anonymized people-based ID rooted in deterministic offline information, reminiscent of e-mail and postal addresses, names and cellphone numbers. It may well join with IDs saved by premium publishers (Fb and Google, for instance) by means of integrations, and can be utilized for direct open web offers and personal market activations. As soon as a RampID is created, LiveRamp gives cookie syncing throughout the {industry} utilizing normal know-how to match in DSPs, for instance matching to The Commerce Desk’s cookies or MediaMath’s cookies.

Who ought to use it?

Publishers and advertisers with extra assets who wish to outsource ID creation and matching, and who need higher interoperability.

What does it do?

Publishers and advertisers can use LiveRamp’s authenticated visitors options (ATS) service to attach with a consumer’s offline id to boost and anonymize it, and match at scale. It doesn’t acquire, retailer or improve publisher-provided e-mail addresses.

Why is it distinctive?

Ramp ID is constructed to be interoperable with different IDs throughout the web. It doesn’t join with IDs based mostly on fingerprinting.

How does it work? 

  • LiveRamp’s ATS runs on a writer web site. When a consumer logs onto the positioning their e-mail tackle is shared with the writer in trade for content material. That e-mail tackle is handed by means of to an API by way of LiveRamp’s Protected Haven platform, a impartial third-party information clear room.
  • The e-mail tackle is linked to a Ramp ID particular to that consumer and is handed again to the writer, all in real-time. 
  • The ID connects the writer’s first-party stock to a marketer’s database of first-, second- and third-party information. The latter’s information are linked to the identical nameless Ramp ID. 
  • As soon as the writer’s and marketer’s Ramp IDs are linked, the marketer should buy an impression. 

Who’re the companions? 

Publishers: 500+ publishers representing 11,000+ domains worldwide together with Amazon, Microsoft, CafeMedia, Leaf Group, Prisma Media and Burda

SSPs: 60 SSPs 

DSPs: Reside on 67 DSPs, like The Commerce Desk, Amobee, Criteo, Dataxu and MediaMath

Adoption: Linked to over 70% of shopper time spent on-line both by way of ATS or by way of direct integration, reaching 250 million+ shoppers within the US

What sort of information does it use to establish customers?

Core deterministic information: Offline identify and postal tackle historical past, e-mail tackle

Different deterministic information: Telephone quantity

Probabilistic information: Third-party cookie information is used for matching at scale

Does this resolution use third-party cookie information?

No. Third-party cookie information isn’t used to construct Ramp ID, however within the US and in some restricted worldwide places, third-party cookies are used to attach the ID to writer stock for it to perform at scale. This functionality is being rolled down and is anticipated to get replaced with ATS sooner or later.

How does this ID resolution tackle consent and consumer privateness?

  • Consent: LiveRamp works with writer companions who’re contractually required to present shoppers correct discover and selection about how their info might be used, and additional present the buyer the choice to decide out of information assortment. Customers can decide out on the writer stage or from all personalised promoting. LiveRamp additionally runs its personal CMP, a privateness administration system it provides to publishers for gratis.
  • Transparency: LiveRamp’s ATS requires that the buyer shares their id with the writer, and publishers should give shoppers a hyperlink to LiveRamp’s opt-out web site. The patron can opt-out on the writer stage or they’ll opt-out on the LiveRamp stage. This permits customers to opt-out on the person-level from ATS and RampID, whereas a consumer opting out on the writer stage would nonetheless enable them to take part in ATS on one other writer web site. 
  • Knowledge safety: A Ramp ID is created by means of a one-way hash and encryption course of to make it an nameless ID. The ID can’t be unencrypted after it has been created. So, whereas information might be become a Ramp ID, a Ramp ID can’t be turned again into information. Shopper id is matched anonymously to the Ramp ID after which to third-party cookie information.

Is it interoperable? 

Sure. Ramp ID is interoperable with any variety of “privacy-first” IDs, together with: UID 2.0; Fabrick ID; Fb ID; Google Advert ID; Twitter ID; Snapchat ID; and numerous company IDs.

About LiveRamp?

LiveRamp is a knowledge enablement platform headquartered in San Francisco. Acxiom Corp., a legacy information analytics, and software program service firm based in 1969, acquired LiveRamp in 2014. 4 years later, Acxiom offered the Acxiom Advertising and marketing Companies portion of its enterprise to company firm Interpublic Group and rebranded the remaining portion of its enterprise below the present LiveRamp moniker. LiveRamp’s Ramp ID has entry to Acxiom’s practically 50-year reserve of information collected from its information administration and unsolicited mail clients.



The fundamental first-party-cookie ID resolution

Primarily based on an interview with Garrett McGrath, Prebid’s chairperson

What’s SharedID?

SharedID is an open supply ID-generating service for publishers, which makes use of a first-party cookie with no probabilistic options or background features. The ID serves as a storage mechanism for the positioning’s first-party information. It doesn’t enable for cross-site monitoring, aside from inside the writer’s personal area. (Epsilon made its PubCommon ID, additionally a first-party cookie, obtainable to Prebid in 2020. Prebid merged SharedID and PubCommon ID to create one SharedID.)

Who ought to use it?

Small to massive tech-savvy publishers with fewer assets who wish to share their first-party information with DSPs by way of an ID resolution.

What does it do?

It takes first-party consumer information collected by a writer and generates a globally distinctive ID that publishers can use to establish particular person customers and to connect curiosity attributes to customers. As soon as SharedID is applied on a writer’s web page, it creates the consumer ID and shops it on the writer’s personal area. The ID is sharable and can be utilized with SSPs or with different IDs.

Why is it distinctive?

SharedID is owned and operated by, an open supply group. It’s not an authenticated ID tied to a bit of registered info on an exterior server and hidden from the consumer’s or writer’s view. It’s, very merely, a first-party cookie that stays inside the writer’s area and is a submodule within the Prebid consumer ID module. The Prebid consumer ID module is a container of kinds for common IDs wherein completely different ID distributors can create submodules. (There are about 30 submodules in Prebid.) SharedID doesn’t synchronize with exterior events like another IDs. 

How does it work? 

  • Publishers put code on a web page for the aim of making a wrapper for header bidding, which permits SharedID creation. 
  • As soon as a writer permits SharedID, the SharedID worth is written to the web page in a first-party cookie. 
  • SharedID stays inside the writer area and the writer can select to share it with an SSP or DSP. 
  • The ID is subsequently made obtainable to the programmatic bid stream by means of open RTB and it arrives on the entrance door of the SSP, after which on the DSPs, alongside all the opposite consumer IDs the writer has elected to ship.

Who’re the companions? 

Publishers: 30,000+ writer domains

Technical: Submodules in Prebid

Adoption: 30,000 domains have deployed the SharedID consumer module

What sort of information does it use to establish customers?

Core deterministic information: N/A
Different deterministic information: First-party cookie information, like the place a consumer is positioned on an internet web page or a consumer’s financial institution login info
Probabilistic information: N/A

Does this resolution use third-party cookie information?

No. It’s a first-party-cookie-based ID.

How does this ID resolution tackle consent and consumer privateness?

  • Consent: The writer is answerable for getting consent for first-party information use. First-party cookies are thought-about to be strictly obligatory cookies and should not restricted by privateness legal guidelines, nor are they prone to be sooner or later. Nonetheless, they nonetheless require consent below the EU’s GDPR. Prebid’s code has options and functionalities written into it that require EU publishers to have consent strings with a view to preserve management of consumer information.
  • Transparency: All web sites acquire first-party cookies and SharedID is managed by the writer. Solely the writer, the content material shopper and whoever is bidding on the fitting to serve the buyer an impression can see the SharedID.
  • Knowledge safety: SharedID isn’t encrypted. Not many third-party distributors or firms can see it as it’s not despatched to a third-party vendor, except despatched out to the bid stream. 

Is it interoperable? 

No. SharedID is a standalone ID.

About Prebid 

Prebid.js launched in 2015 as an open-source header bidding platform to present publishers the power to deal with header bidding on their very own web sites and apps. According to the company, Prebid.js is the principally broadly used header bidding wrapper on the internet and consists of  “ … greater than 300 demand sources and 50 analytics adapters. It helps foreign money conversion, GDPR, frequent ID techniques, and a number of advert servers.” Father or mother firm was fashioned in September 2017 to handle Prebid.js and different merchandise. 



The user-first ID resolution

Primarily based on an interview with SWAN’s James Rosewell, 51Degrees’ CEO

What’s SWID?

Safe Internet ID (SWID) is a resettable, pseudo-anonymous ID stewarded by a community of operators known as Safe Internet Addressability Community (SWAN). The operators embody publishers, advertisers, CMPs and different firms keen on transparency. SWAN requires all members adhere to a binding contractual settlement and comply with SWAN’s standardized mannequin phrases. Operators execute the SWID ID on behalf of shoppers, based mostly on their expressed preferences for personalised or non-personalized advertising and marketing. For the latter, SWID permits use circumstances like reporting and attribution for advertisers. 

Who ought to use it?

Publishers and advertisers of any dimension which might be keen on a extremely clear decentralized advert tech system that places consent within the customers’ fingers. 

What does it do?

SWID works like different ID options in that it permits publishers to construct profiles from consumer information and to promote advertisements within the open market. Nonetheless, a SWID is saved in a browser cookie file and works just for a single browser. Customers can present an non-compulsory e-mail to proceed their preferences throughout extra browsers and units.

Why is it distinctive?

Customers have full management over opt-in, opt-out and use of their private info. A consumer can entry and alter their consent preferences at any time by means of the SWAN portal. SWID additionally doesn’t require a consumer to offer an e-mail tackle or a cellphone quantity at enroll. And it doesn’t use Javascript.

SWAN is a neighborhood venture. It’s open to all and relies on the founding rules of a decentralized digital ecosystem. It’s free and primarily requires members to stick to its mannequin phrases. For example, if information is shipped outdoors of the European Financial Space, there are normal contractual clauses that govern that information switch. Small to massive publishers can participate in it and as extra publishers, advertisers, advert tech orgs and corporations take part, and cling to standardized SWAN governance, the ecosystem grows. It’s not a blockchain-based platform.

How does it work? 

  • When a consumer visits a writer web page that makes use of SWAN, a pop-up window provides them the choice to decide into personalised promoting and share their e-mail tackle. A brand new identifier is created. This gives consent throughout the board to publishers and advertisers inside SWAN’s ecosystem. 
  • The SWID is then assigned to that consumer to offer a clear and consensual concentrating on methodology. It’s saved as a cookie in a single browser. Customers can see and alter their preferences at any time, and each sender and receiver of advert transactions are signed in to extend transparency inside the advert provide chain. 
  • SWAN operators can not purchase or promote profile or media information. Publishers can construct personalised profiles for customers who present consent.
  • Publishers and SSPs have a direct relationship with SWAN operators. They retrieve and signal the info to acknowledge receipt. The Writer or SSP then sends the info to the SWAN trade, which additionally indicators it. The information can be utilized by publishers to construct consumer profiles and promote advertisements by way of SSPs and DSPs.

Who’re the companions? 

Publishers: 10s of publishers

Adoption: SWAN members embody some prime 20 publishers and advertisers, however present adoption charges are decrease than for different options.

What sort of information does it use to establish customers?

Core deterministic information: Electronic mail tackle (SWID relies on a consumer’s single browser exercise and doesn’t require a consumer to offer particular information. A consumer has the choice to offer an e-mail tackle in the event that they so select. In that case, the consumer solely gives an e-mail tackle and a four-icon code to the Person Interface Supplier [UIP], generally a CMP. The SWAN operator then returns a hash of the e-mail tackle utilizing the 4 icons because the salt for the hash.)

Different deterministic information: First-party cookies

Probabilistic information: Browser exercise, third-party cookies 

Does this resolution use third-party cookie information?

Sure. SWAN makes use of first-party and third-party cookies.

How does this ID resolution tackle consent and consumer privateness?

  • Consent: SWID requires customers to offer consent for information use and customers can opt-out by way of the SWAN portal at any time. Publishers that use SWAN information are required to offer a hyperlink to a UIP on each internet web page, usually displayed within the footer of each internet web page.
  • Transparency: SWAN’s whole code is open supply on GitHub. A consumer can entry the opt-in portal every time they need and might see all the businesses and publishers with whom they’re sharing information. All operators that obtain consumer information need to adjust to contractual guidelines requiring them to fulfill clearly outlined requirements for transparency in information processing. For instance, members should cryptographically confirm that they acquired and processed consumer information and signal an audit path. 
  • Knowledge safety: SWID isn’t encrypted. It assigns random distinctive alphanumeric characters to every consumer however it doesn’t tie again to the consumer’s id. The ID resets every time a consumer desires or when a consumer enters a non-public searching session. (SWAN governance remains to be contemplating whether or not there must be a set variety of days after which the ID would mechanically reset.)

Is it interoperable? 

Sure. SWAN doesn’t at the moment combine with UID or Prebid, however it’s able to doing so.

About SWAN

Safe Internet Addressability Community (SWAN) is a neighborhood operated, open-source, cross-domain id community targeted on consent-based privateness. 51Degrees, a UK-based information companies firm, launched SWAN in early 2021. It was the brainchild of 51Degrees’ CEO James Rosewell. 


Unified ID 2.0

The industry-wide ID resolution

Primarily based on an interview with Kanishk Prasad, The Commerce Desk’s senior product supervisor

What’s Unified ID 2.0?

Unified ID 2.0 (UID 2.0) is an encryption and decryption system for each publishers and advertisers, which relies on a consumer’s e-mail tackle. It’s a decentralized open supply, industry-wide venture that isn’t proprietary to The Commerce Desk and gives a light-weight approach to match IDs securely. There are two sorts of UID 2.0. One is the UID 2.0 token which converts an e-mail tackle right into a UID 2.0 token by means of cryptography; the opposite UID 2.0 is its decrypted model, which is the precise UID 2.0. It’s the identifier that the writer and an advertiser transact upon. 

What does it do?

UID 2.0 gives publishers and advertisers a safe approach to goal advertisements to customers by offering either side with an encrypted ID that may be matched within the bid stream. Publishers and advertisers should have the identical consumer e-mail tackle with a view to match IDs. Whereas the ID itself doesn’t comprise information and is shared as a hash, information (reminiscent of which web site the ID is coming from) is transferred within the common bid request. UID 2.0 isn’t an ID decision system. It doesn’t use fingerprinting or behind-the-scenes monitoring.

Why is it distinctive?

UID 2.0 is a decentralized system that may be operated by a number of unbiased and personal entities, like completely different publishers and organizations. Additionally it is interoperable with different IDs.

It’s managed by an administrator, at the moment The Commerce Desk, to make sure companions utilizing the service meet privateness compliance requirements. (UID 2.0 is anticipated to be handed off to an unbiased entity for administration, however a current deal to have Prebid deal with administration fell by means of.)

UID 2.0 has two sorts of operator members: open and personal operators. Open operators, like Prebid for instance, are usually utilized by publishers who don’t have the bandwidth to host the service in-house. Most writer companions, like The Washington Publish, are non-public operators. UID 2.0’s administrative physique gives non-public operators with an algorithm to generate a UID 2.0 inside their atmosphere, so a consumer’s personally identifiable info doesn’t depart the writer’s or advertiser’s partitions. 

Who ought to use it?

Small to massive publishers and advertisers who wish to use encrypted IDs for matching and have massive reserves of consumer e-mail addresses. 

How does it work? 

  • When a consumer visits an internet site and explicitly gives an e-mail tackle to a writer or to an advertiser, that e-mail tackle is shared with the operator/service.
  • A writer sends a request to an operator to generate a UID 2.0 token utilizing a consumer’s e-mail tackle. The processing or conversion to a UID token works on a writer’s or advertiser’s area, if they’re non-public operators, or by means of open operators like Prebid. An advertiser with the identical e-mail tackle on its facet additionally has the e-mail tackle transformed to a UID 2.0.
  • The operator generates the continually altering token ID, which is actually a hash, for the writer by working it by means of an algorithm. This may be shared with DSPs.
  • As soon as the token reaches the DSP, the DSP sends a decryption key request to the administrator (at the moment The Commerce Desk) so the writer and advertiser UIDs might be matched within the bid stream.

Who’re the companions? 

Publishers: 100+ publishers, reminiscent of BBC and Enterprise Insider

SSPs: PubMatic and Magnite, amongst others

Knowledge companions: Neustar and Nielsen, amongst others

Trade companions: Advert Council, IAB and Reliable Accountability Group (TAG), amongst others

Adoption: 250 million individuals are reachable by way of UID 2.0 together with The Commerce Desk

What sort of information does it use to establish customers?

Core deterministic information: Electronic mail tackle

Different deterministic information: N/A

Probabilistic information: N/A

Does this resolution use third-party cookie information?


How does this ID resolution tackle consent and consumer privateness?

  • Consent: A consumer has to offer an e-mail tackle to the writer or advertiser and take express motion earlier than a UID 2.0 might be generated. 
  • Transparency: The Commerce Desk is engaged on making a user-friendly opt-out portal and a system to present customers clear discover that the e-mail addresses they’re offering might be transformed into promoting IDs. They’re additionally implementing audit mechanisms, which permit directors to “kick out” non-compliant firms from the UID 2.0 system.  The audit mechanisms might be administered by unbiased entities as a substitute of personal firms sooner or later. Your entire code base is already open supply by means of the IAB Tech Lab on GitHub.
  • Knowledge safety: A consumer’s e-mail tackle is hashed, and cryptographic noise and a  “secret salt” is added to it, so it can’t be leaked or traced again to the consumer. This course of turns publisher-shared consumer information right into a UID 2.0 token. The token ID adjustments each hour or so. The administrator receives token decryption key requests from the buy-side. The token is simply decrypted if the requestor is compliant with all UID 2.0 guidelines and has handed all audits. The ID can’t be traced again to the consumer, nor can or not it’s damaged again all the way down to the e-mail tackle.

Is it interoperable? 

Sure. It’s at the moment interoperable with LiveRamp’s Ramp ID.

About The Commerce Desk

The Commerce Desk is an advert tech firm that makes a speciality of programmatic media shopping for. It operates a self-service, cloud-based platform by means of which advert patrons can create, handle and optimize digital promoting campaigns throughout advert codecs and units. The Commerce Desk says it’s “the quickest rising demand-side platform within the {industry}.” It was co-founded in 2009 by Jeff Inexperienced, who beforehand co-founded DSP AdECN, and David Pickles, who joined AdECN in 2007.


Glossary of key phrases

A consent string, additionally known as a “daisybit,” is a collection of numbers added to an advert bid request which identifies the consent standing of an advert tech vendor — whether or not or not they’ve a consumer’s consent to make use of their information with a view to serve them personalised promoting — a stipulation now wanted below the Common Knowledge Safety Regulation. The Interactive Promoting Bureau Europe has assigned a consent string to each vendor that has signed as much as its world vendor record, a step any vendor must take if it desires to be a part of the IAB Transparency and Consent framework. Google additionally has its personal consent string model for firms that use its Funding Selections consent administration platform. Learn extra right here.


A hash or a “cryptographic hash perform” is a mathematical perform which makes use of an enter worth to provide a randomized output worth, usually within the type of an alphanumeric string. The identical enter all the time yields the identical output. Hashing is a one-way perform, basically irreversible; whereas encryption is a two-way perform so information might be decrypted utilizing a key. Hashing is a technique used for anonymizing consumer information earlier than sending it into the bid stream for matching. 


IDFA (Identifier for Advertisers) is the cellular identifier firms use to trace Apple machine customers with out revealing private info. Corporations could have much less entry to the IDFA as soon as apps are required to ask individuals for permission to gather and share them. Learn extra right here. 


PII stands for personally identifiable info. PII is any info that may establish an individual both immediately or not directly, or any info that may be linked to an individual to deduce their id. Privateness rules lay out the distinctions between sorts of personally identifiable info that’s deemed problematic. Within the case of cookies, it’s “persistent” cookies that retailer private consumer info post-session that current the bigger menace. Different sorts of cookies, like these obligatory to assist a web site bear in mind what’s in your purchasing cart, “load balancing” cookies or an info service requested by a consumer (like within the case of on-line banking), fall below a “strictly necessary exemption” that enables websites to proceed to make use of them largely unimpeded. Learn extra on its use right here.


A token protects delicate information by changing it with an algorithmically generated quantity or index. In contrast to encryption, it doesn’t require a decryption key or alter the unique information. A token can’t be turned again into delicate information and is separated from that information. It may be despatched out in exterior environments with out a threat of linkage or leakage of the unique information. In contrast to a hash, a token doesn’t need to be reproducible from the identical enter and can’t be “joined” or used with the unique information or its traits. A token might be hashed for an additional layer of safety. 

Zero-party information

That is the info an individual deliberately shares with an advertiser, as within the case when an individual knowingly provides their consent for an advertiser to make use of their information in trade for provides which might be individually related to them. Zero-party information was coined by analysis agency Forrester final November and has begun to get extra traction. It subscribes to the notion that as a lot as individuals like to guard their privateness, additionally they just like the manufacturers they purchase from to grasp them. In actuality, there may be little or no distinction between zero-party information and authenticated first-party information apart from the time period. Learn extra right here.

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